The Pioneer Town Site Company established Russell Springs in December 1886, on the site of earliest known settler William D. Russell. Russell was a cattleman, using the clear-water springs for his large herds. His huts were still visible when the land surveyed in 1886. Soon after the Pioneer Town Site Company established Russell Springs, it became the County Seat and remained so until August of 1963. In 2000, the population of Russell Springs was 32.